Children who were vaccinated as part of Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)’s campaign wait on the grounds of the Grand Mosque, Central African Republic. MSF is providing around 3,600 to 4,600 consultations per month, of which one third are children under five.
Today’s graphic looks at the 20 common amino acids that are combined to make up the proteins in our bodies. It also gives the three-letter and one-letter codes for each, as well as denoting whether they are ‘essential’ or ‘non-essential’.
White matter is one of the two components of the central nervous system and consists mostly of glial cells and myelinatedaxons that transmit signals from one region of the cerebrum to another and between the cerebrum and lower brain centers. White matter tissue of the freshly cut brain appears pinkish white to the naked eye because myelin is composed largely of lipid tissue veined with capillaries. Its white color is due to its usual preservation in formaldehyde.
White matter is composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell processes (or axons), which connect various grey matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neurons. Myelin acts as an insulator, increasing the speed of transmission of all nerve signals.
Image: White matter structure of human brain (taken by MRI).
Scientists visualise the scars left by heart attacks
These images show (A) a healthy heart and (B) a heart damaged due to a lack of oxygen during a heart attack.
As you can see, the microstructure of a heart changes after a heart attack (B). The scar (outlined area), is formed because of the tissue death caused by a local lack of oxygen, and the consistency of muscle cell arrangement compared to the healthy heart (A) is lost. This will affect how much blood the heart can pump into the body within one heartbeat.
The images taken by BBSRC-funded researchers at the British Heart Foundation Experimental Magnetic Resonance Unit (BMRU), University of Oxford, were generated by a special type of imaging technique that measures the motion and movement of water molecules in the heart tissue.
This new technology, that Dr Jurgen Schneider and his team have developed, could eventually allow doctors to be able to look at a 3D+T representation of the patient’s heart, zoom-in on any relevant detail (a coronary vessel blockage or a damaged part of tissue), assess treatment options, and predict outcomes for the specific individual before the patient even enters the operating theatre. Much of this vision is still far ahead. Nonetheless, this research is vital to its development.
Image credit: BHF Experimental MR Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford.
In the past few years, next-generation cancer drugs have started trickling into the clinics, including a smart inhibitor that block a specific mutant kinase (V600E-B-RAF) and antibodies that can induce T cell-mediated rejection of certain tumors (anti-CTL4 antibodies). Another promising approach is to genetically modify T cells to attack tumors and then infuse the cells into cancer patients. Indeed, this strategy is currently entering clinical trials, specifically with T cells engineered to express the chimeric antigen receptors (CARs).
Movie: Here T cells (gray) are engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to redirect T-cell specificity to target CD19-positive tumor cells, expressing EGFP (green). Tumor cells turn red after the T-cell attacks and kills them (propidium iodide staining). The time-lapse imaging was performed using Nikon’s BioStation. Video presented by Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation.
"Given a clear path to the horizon — such as over the ocean — this means that there’s a slight region of space just above the reddened Sun where only the shorter wavelength light is visible!
And when that happens, in addition to the normal color gradient that comes with a sunset, you can also get a small, separate region above the disk of the Sun that appears yellow, green, or even blue! (And much fainter than the rest of the Sun!)”